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From the earliest days of their relationship with the United States, the tribes from the region today referred to as the Northwestern United States have been steadfast in their effort to protect the land, waters, plants, and animals of their traditional homelands. That effort is not coincidental; North America's indigenous people have a singular relationship to the environment they have been a part of for millennia. In particular, they have relied on the streams of their territory for food, fiber, transportation, recreation, cultural, and spiritual sustenance. As a result, through litigation, restoration, and conservation management, tribes have focused on maintaining a good environment for culturally important aquatic species. This Article-a companion to another in this Issue that addresses contemporary methodologies-focuses on but one part of that monumental effort: the historical development of the methods used to ensure adequate quantities of water remain in streams to maintain a healthy habitat for aquatic species.